aforementioned parameters to STANAG design constraints for voltage and Keywords: Ship electric power system, STANAG , pulsed loads, voltage. Studying this standard is interesting as the particular nature of ship electric networks is outlined. • STANAG () referring to the electrical power plants in. Ships. IEC Electrical installations in ships Part Definitions and general requirements. STANAG Characteristics of Shipboard.

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Moreover, two strongly related to harmonic distortion PS-issue with inherent stochastic nature are notching and noiseto which not much attention is paid stanag 1008 any ship Sfanag.

Graphic representation of individual voltage harmonic limits set by various standards. Besides the typical harmonic distortion consisting of integer multiples stanag 1008 multiples of the fundamental frequency and consitute the most typical type of harmonic distortion, the so-called interharmonics and 1008, i.

Stanag 1008 and frequency periodic or quasi-periodic variations can be caused by regularly or randomly repeated loading with frequency less than nominal are referred in shipboard Standards STANAGIEEE stanag 1008 as modulation. The evolution of the disturbance waveshape, peak-value, etc is influenced by many parameters such as: This phenomenon can cause problems to electronic equipment that use zero crossings for stanag 1008 or time calculation.

Three-phase converters are the most important source of voltage notching [IEEE ]. For the specific agreement regarding gun magazines, see. In a symmetrical three phase system, phase voltages are equal in magnitude and their phase angle differs by ?.

Velasco, Effects of Pulsed: The name of these disturbances varies depending on certain characteristics stanag 1008 them e. Regarding surge protective devices transients in voltage as well as in current are crucial.

Bollen, Understanding power quality problems: Failure of equipment sensitive to harmonics.

stanag 1008 Transient-state phenomena, which are of limited duration and they are characterized by significant changes there is definitely a decaying mechanismsuch as spikes and transients like dips, swells.

In contradiction to other power quality problems, harmonic distortion is a steady-state phenomenon existing on a constant stanag 1008 basis, which means that the stresses occurred, though not severe, can eventually 100 an accumulative result often not easily explained.


Notching is a steady state phenomenon but unlike the harmonic pollution issues described previously, notching is associated with stanag 1008 frequencies.

Effects of capacitance between line and earth.

stanag 1008 Thus, the different aspects origin, characteristics, effect on loads, characterisation methods of several power quality phenomena are summarised. Mains filters should be mounted as close as possible to power entry so that high frequency interference does stanag 1008 bypass the filter. The first two consist the main system characteristic quantities that have to be kept intact stanag 1008 well within the limits set by the standards.

From a certain point of view, PSQ phenomena can be classified into two main categories, i. Voltage and Current spikes and transients stanag 1008 several adverse consequences such as equipment failure and improper operation of the entire system, like:.

Voltage and Frequency modulation. Electromagnetic Interference EMI problems with sensitive electronic equipment navigation, communication control and automation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia STANAG is the stanag 1008 for Standardization Agreement, which set up processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries stanag 1008 the alliance.

Stanag 1008 dips are events that present a temporary decrease in the rms voltage. Considering the advent of All Electric Ship, where all equipment, including main propulsion systems, will be completely electrified, PSQ problems will be of primary importance for the safe and normal operation of any waterborne vessel.

Solutions to noise problems include filters, isolation stanag 1008 etc. Voltage dips are responsible for the tripping of computers, adjustable speed drives, electronic equipment and process control equipment. The standards relevant to the subject are: Deviation from this symmetry stanag 1008 is caused stanaf several reasons:. For each power quality issue a succinct description of its nature and stanag 1008 is made, followed by its possible adverse consequences as well as limitations set by standards, while in the end a set of mitigation measures is cited.

Fault-induced dip magnitude depends on the impedance of the source system strengthsystem configuration, fault impedance, fault type and the distance to the fault. The future electric power system of naval warships in stqnag context of the AES will supply energy to sophisticated systems for propulsion, electric guns, electric launchers, high power sensors, navigation etc.


Standardization Agreement

Stanag 1008, limited research work has been reported even for more conventional ship types on the investigation and classification of PSQ phenomena.

The current on the contrary, is a quantity affecting power quality via the voltage drop on the system through the shanag impedances. Furthermore, noise comprise signals with broadband spectral content lower than kHz superimposed upon the stanag 1008 system voltage or stanag 1008 in phase conductors, or found stanag 1008 neutral conductors or signal lines [IEEE ] and it is caused by power electronic devices, control circuits, arcing equipment and switching power supplies.

This standard refers actually 10008 normal operation of warships and has introduced a series of PSQ interesting issues. Typical examples of pulsed loads include:. In continental systems this stanqg value stana fluctuations of voltage are measured by the flickermeter and the phenomenon is referred to as flicker due to the effect that it has on lighting.

A surge arrester can absorb the energy of a spike stanag 1008 a transient and it is the most typical way to protect loads from experiencing problems by this type of phenomena. Considering that the ship system electrification eventually dominates according to the All Stanag 1008 Ship concept, PSQ issues turn to be a key-factor of the normal operation, survivability and safety aboard.

Stanag Edition 9 – softzipallsoft

When this dynamic balance changes, e. Harmonic power quality refers to the existence of distorted periodic voltage or current waveforms, which, can be expressed via mathematical Fourier analysis, as the superposition of stanag 1008 infinite series of frequencies, the fundamental one the staanag power frequency and its multiples, stanag 1008 high-order harmonics VnIn:. This stanag 1008 is about the list of NATO agreements.

It is worth noting that according to the THD definition, both the fundamental component and the high order harmonics should be measured simultaneously.